Agriculture Census forms part of a broader system of collection of Agricultural Statistics in India. It is a large-scale statistical operation for collection of requisite data and derivation of quantitative information about the structural characteristics of agriculture in the country. Through Agriculture Census, basic data on important aspects of agricultural economy of operational holdings in the country is collected.
Periodic Agriculture Censuses are important as these are the main source of information on basic characteristics of operational holdings such as land use and cropping patterns, irrigation status, tenancy particulars and the terms of leasing. This information is tabulated by different size classes and social groups including Scheduled Castes / Scheduled Tribes which are needed for development planning, socio-economic policy formulation and establishment of national priorities.